The Formation of Rocks, the Solid Materials of Earth
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The Formation of Rocks, the Solid Materials of Earth

There are three kinds of rocks that can be found on Earth. These rocks are the Igneous, the Sedimentary and the Metamorphic rocks. These kinds of rocks differ from their origin.

There are three kinds of rocks that can be found on Earth. These rocks are the Igneous, the Sedimentary and the Metamorphic rocks. These kinds of rocks differ from their origin.

The Igneous rock is formed from the cooling and hardening of the molten materials that are found in the crust, either closer to the surface or near a volcano. This kind of rock is the most abundant rock on the planet, comprising about 65% of all the rocks.

Igneous is hard and tough, this rock are further divided into two groups; the extrusive igneous rock and the intrusive igneous rock.

The common igneous rocks are the Diorite, the Andesite, the Granite, the Gabbro, the Obsidian and the Basalt.

Diorite is a coarse-grained and generally light-colored rock. It is a kind of intrusive rock that cools very slowly. Andesite is a fine-grained and light-colored extrusive rock and it is formed in the lava flows. Granite is a light-colored usually in gray or in pink and coarse-grained rock and made up of several kinds of crystals. The Gabbro is a kind of a coarse-grained rock and it is often called as the “black granite”. The Obsidian is a dark- glassy this rock has no crystals. The Basalt is a dark and fine-grained rock that is formed from the lava or magma near the surface of the Earth.

The extrusive igneous rock is formed when the magma reach the surface and hardens. It is generally dark in color and heavy. This is because the extrusive igneous rock is reach in magnesium as well as in iron.

The intrusive igneous rock is formed when the magma finds its way to the crust but does not reach the surface. It cools slowly and takes thousands or millions of years to harden. The intrusive igneous rock is generally light-colored; it is rich in silica and it has a large crystals. The igneous rock that has a big crystals are described as coarse-grained; while the igneous rock that has small crystals are described as fine-grained.

The Sedimentary rock is formed from the other rocks and was deposited by the water and air. It is considered as the third in numbers among the three kinds of rocks which comprise about 8% of all the rocks.

This rock is exposed to the air, to the water, to the sunlight and to some acids in the environment. Some of this rock may contain the remains or traces of some living things such as fishes, the shells, plants or mammals. These remains of the living organisms that can be found on the sedimentary rocks are called as fossils.

The sedimentary rock is in different types. The most common of these are the conglomerate, the sandstone, the shale, the limestone and the gypsum.

The conglomerate is consists of pebbles or by pieces of gravel that are cemented together. This type of igneous rock is usually formed in the riverbeds, in the foot of the mountain or along the beaches.

The sandstone is formed when the layers of sand grains are deposited by the water or by the wind. This will eventually packed and become cemented together.

The shale is considered as the most common type of sedimentary rock; it makes 50% of rock that are exposed on Earth. The shale is hardened clay.

The limestone is a kind of sedimentary rock that is mostly composed of calcium carbonate. Limestone is formed from the actions of the plants and animals in the bottom of the lakes and the oceans.

The gypsum is the kind of sedimentary rock that is formed when the hydrated calcium sulfate in the seawater settles.

The Metamorphic rock is formed when the igneous rock or the sedimentary rock change in color in texture and on its crystal structure because of a great pressure as well as temperature. This kind of rock is considered as the second most abundant rock comprising about 27% of all the rocks.

The most common types of the metamorphic rocks are the marble, the gneiss and the quartzite.

The marble is considered as the most widely known among the metamorphic rocks. It is formed from the limestone but it is denser and harder. The gneiss rock is formed from the conglomerate or granite while the quartzite rock is formed from the sandstone; it is heavy, hard and nonporous. It has also a grainy texture.

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Comments (1)

Interesting article, I am always fascinated by rock formations...voted

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